Historia ya Malkia Elizabeth Wa II Uingereza;- Queen Elizabeth II’s long reign was filled with a great sense of responsibility and dedication throughout her life to her position as queen as well as to her people.
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For many people, he was the one thing that did not change as the world changed rapidly and Britain’s power in the world declined. Society changed dramatically and the roles and benefits of the royal family began to be questioned.
Her success in keeping the royal family together during that tumultuous period was remarkable, especially considering that at the time of her birth, no one expected that she would end up queen, and for a long time.
Historia ya Malkia Elizabeth Wa II Uingereza
Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor was born on 21 April 1926, in a house near Berkeley Square in London.
She was the midwife of Albert, Prince Regent of York, who was the second son of George V, and his wife, formerly known as Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon.
Elizabeth and her sister, Margaret Rose, born in 1930, were educated at home and raised in a loving family environment.
Elizabeth had a very close relationship with her father and grandfather, George V.
When she was six, Elizabeth told her riding instructor that she wanted to be “a country lady and have lots of horses and dogs.”
He allegedly started showing a very high sense of responsibility from a very young age.
Winston Churchill, who later became prime minister, was quoted as saying that he “showed a sense of authority, which was rare to find in a child like him.”
Despite not attending regular school, Elizabeth excelled in various languages and did extensive reading of constitutional history.
A special group of girl scouts, known as Girl Guides, known as 1st Buckingham Palace was created so that she could socialize with girls of her age.
Princess Elizabeth making her first radio broadcast, with her younger sister Margaret Rose 12 October 1940 in London
However, the woman who decided to marry him, the twice-divorced American Wallis Simpson, was not accepted on political and religious grounds at the time. At the end of the year, he resigned.
The Prince Regent of York, Queen Elizabeth’s father, took the throne and became King George VI. Her coronation hinted at the life that awaited Elizabeth and she later wrote that she found the ceremony “very pleasant”.
With hostility and anxiety rising in Europe, the new King, along with his wife, Queen Elizabeth, took on the task of restoring public confidence in the royal family.
Their example touched their eldest daughter.
In 1939, the then 13-year-old princess accompanied the King and Queen to a ceremony at the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth.
Together with her sister Margaret, she accompanied one of the former candidates, her third cousin, Prince Philip of Greece.
Prince Philip visited his royal family when he was on leave from the navy – and by 1944, when he was 18, it was clear that Elizabeth was in love with him.
He used to keep his picture in his room, and they also wrote letters to each other.
The princess joined the army’s Auxiliary Territorial Service (ATS) at the end of the war, where she learned to drive and repair trucks.
On the day the war ended, known as VE Day, she joined other members of the royal family at Buckingham Palace as thousands of people gathered on the main street leading to the palace, known as The Mall, to celebrate the end of the war in Europe.
“We asked our parents for permission to go out and see for ourselves,” he later recalled e.
“I remember we were very worried that we would be recognized (by people). I remember long lines of strangers holding hands and walking towards Whitehall, we all joined them and walked as if carried by a wave of joy and recovery.”
After the war, her desire to marry Prince Philip faced several challenges.
The king did not want to lose his beloved daughter and Philip needed to remove the objection of discrimination in the royal family that did not favor people of foreign origin.
The death of his father
But their wishes came true and on 20 November 1947, they got married in Westminster Abbey.
Duke of Edinburgh, Philip’s new title, remained an officer in the navy.
For a short time, he was sent to serve in the army in Malta, and there they enjoyed a somewhat normal life.
Their first child, Charles, was born in 1948, followed by his sister, Anne, born in 1950.
But the King, after experiencing great stress and pressure during the war, was overcome by lung cancer, which was caused by being a chronic smoker.
In January 1952, Elizabeth, who was 25 years old at the time, with Philip, made a trip abroad.
The king defied the doctors’ advice and went to the airport to say goodbye.
It was the last time Elizabeth saw her father alive.
Elizabeth learned of the King’s death while in a tourist restaurant in a park in Kenya and immediately returned to London as she is now the Queen.
Later he remembered what happened.
“In a way, I didn’t have time to learn the trade. My father died when I was still young, so it was very sudden and you had to do it to the best of your ability.”
Australia and New Zealand
His coronation ceremony in June 1953 was broadcast live on television, despite objections from Prime Minister Winston Churchill.
Millions of people flocked to watch on television, many of them for the first time, to watch Queen Elizabeth II take the oath.
With Britain still facing a period of austerity after the war, analysts saw the coronation as the start of a new era for another monarch named Elizabeth.
The Second World War had increased the speed of bringing the British Empire to an end, and by the time the Queen embarked on a long tour of the Commonwealth of Nations in November 1953, many territories that were once British possessions, including India, had gained independence.
Elizabeth became the first monarch or queen to visit Australia and New Zealand.
It was estimated that nearly three quarters of Australians turned out to see him.
In the 1950s, more nations threw off the British flag and former colonies and dominions now came together as a collection of allied nations, voluntarily.
Many politicians felt that the new Commonwealth would provide competition to the emerging European Economic Community and, to some extent, British policy isolated it from continental Europe.
The Queen with Prince Phillip with President Eisenhower and his wife in 1957
Britain’s decision to send in troops to try to prevent Egypt from carrying out its threats to nationalize the Suez Canal ended in disgrace as Britain was forced to withdraw its forces. The move led to the resignation of Prime Minister Anthony Eden.
This plunged the Queen into a political crisis. The Conservative Party did not have a system for appointing a new leader, and after a series of consultations, the Queen gave Harold Macmillan the go-ahead to form a new government.
The Queen found herself under direct attack from Lord Altrincham. In an article in one magazine, he claimed that the Queen’s advisers were “very British” and “high-class” and accused her of being unable to deliver even the simplest of speeches without the speech being written.
His declaration caused a great uproar in the media and Lord Altrincham was even attacked and beaten in the street by a member of the group to defend the kingdom known as the League of Empire Loyalists.
However, the case showed that the British society and their attitude towards the royal family were things that were changing a lot and that things that were loved and respected
that had gone unquestioned for many years, were now being questioned and doubted.
From ‘Monarchy’ to ‘Royal Family’
The tradition of introducing the girls of landlords after they have matured, with the aim of finding diggers among other landlords or people of the ruling class, he abolished. Likewise, he changed the use of ‘Royal rule’ to ‘Royal Family’.
The Queen again found herself in a political crisis in 1963 when Harold Macmillan resigned as prime minister.
The Conservative Party had not yet prepared a system to elect a new leader.
He followed Harold’s advice to appoint the Earl of Home as prime minister.
It was a difficult time for the Queen, who had a reputation for wanting to follow the constitution, and the royal family was increasingly separated from the day-to-day affairs of government.
The Queen took very seriously her right to be informed of what was being done, her right to advise and her right to warn – but she did not go beyond the limits in using them.
It was the last time he would be put in such a situation. The Conservative Party finally did away with its tradition that new party leaders just emerged, and instead a specific system for determining who would be the new leader was put in place.
To calm down
By the end of the 1960s, Buckingham Palace had decided that it needed to take steps to show that the Royal Family was less formal and more accessible to the public.
The result was a one-of-a-kind article about the royal family called, Royal Family. The BBC was allowed to film members of the Windsor family at home.
The video footage was of them grilling meat, decorating a Christmas tree, taking the kids for a ride in the car – all normal activities, but something they had never been seen doing before.
Critics claimed that Richard Cawston’s film undermined the notion of the royal family’s exclusivity by portraying them as ordinary people, including showing the Prince Reigning of Edinburgh, her husband the Queen, grilling sausages in the garden at Balmoral Castle.
But the film was in keeping with the relaxed and relaxed era of the time and played a major role in regaining public support for the royal family.
By the year 1977, during the 25th anniversary of that rule, i.e. the Silver Jubilee, there was real joy among the citizens who showed up at street parties and other events organized throughout the kingdom.
The royal family was seen as safe and loved by the people, and that was mostly due to the efforts of the Queen herself.
Two years later, England, through Margaret Thatcher, had its first woman prime minister.
The relationship between a female head of state and a female head of state was sometimes claimed to be not very good.
The fire at Windsor Castle prompted the Queen to say the year was “a year of tragedy and sorrow”.One thing that challenged the Queen was her commitment to the Commonwealth, the community of which she was the leader.
Queen Elizabeth knew well the leaders of the community who came from Africa and supported their efforts.
He is said to have viewed Thatcher’s aggressive and ‘belligerent’ stance as surprising, and was even more surprised by the prime minister’s move to oppose sanctions against apartheid South Africa.
Year after year, the Queen continued to perform her duties to the public.
After the Gulf War in 1991, he visited the United States and became the first British monarch to address a joint session of Congress.
President George HW Bush said that he “has been a friend of freedom for as long as we can remember.”
However, a year later, a series of scandals and tragedies began to haunt the Royal Family.
The Queen’s second son, the Duke of York, and his wife Sarah separated, while Princess Anne’s marriage to Mark Phillips also ended in divorce. Then, the Prince Reign of Wales and his wife revealed that their marriage was faltering and they separated.
The year ended with a major fire at the Queen’s favorite residence, Windsor Castle.
what was in the royal house. Matters were made worse by a public dispute over whether it was the taxpayer, or the Queen, who should pay for the repair of the areas damaged by the fire.
Respect the discussions going on
The Queen described 1992 as “a year of tragedies and sorrows” and in a speech in the City of London, she appeared to acknowledge that there was a need for a more transparent royal family and less media attack on the family.
“No institution, no city, no royal family, can expect not to be scrutinized by those who put their faith in it and support it, not to mention those who don’t. But we are all part of the fabric of the national community and scrutinizing can be successful if it is done.” civilly without edge, with appropriate humor and understanding.”
The institution of the royal family was to a large extent always defensive and protective.
Buckingham Palace was opened to the public, where people paid to be admitted, to raise money for repairs to Windsor. And it was announced that the Queen and the Prince ruler of
The Welsh would pay tax from their investment income.
Abroad, the hopes of the Commonwealth, which he had early in his reign were not fulfilled.
Britain had alienated its former allies, while focusing on a new European cooperation arrangement.
The Queen still viewed the Commonwealth as a valuable group and was delighted when South Africa, where she had grown up, threw out apartheid. He celebrated that with a tour in March 1995.
At home, the Queen sought to maintain respect for the royal family as public debate raged about whether the institution had any future benefits.
Death of Diana, Princess of Wales
The Queen & Prince Philip laying a wreath after the death of the Princess of Wales
Image source, PA
The role he played the most was to be a symbol of national unity.
However, the royal family was shaken and the Queen found herself under heavy criticism, which was not unusual, after the death of Diana, Princess of Wales, in a Paris road accident in August 1997.
As the public gathered in London palaces and laid wreaths and messages of condolence, the Queen appeared reluctant to give direction as has been customary for her in the past during major national events.
Many of her critics failed to appreciate that she had come from a generation where it was not normal to publicly mourn and grieve, as was seen among the public after Diana’s death.
She also felt an obligation, as a grandmother, that she needed to comfort Diana’s sons privately in the family.
Finally, he gave a live televised speech, in which he paid his respects and praised Diana, as his son-in-law, and then promised that the royal family would get used to life without him.
Loss and celebration
Queen Elizabeth II receiving flowers from Terry Hutt outside St Paul’s Cathedral, London, after a service of thanksgiving on her 80th birthday
The deaths of the Queen Mother (mother) and Queen Elizabeth’s sister, Princess Margaret, in the year of celebrating 50 years of the Queen’s leadership, i.e. the Golden Jubilee, in 2002, cast a shadow of sadness on the celebration of that success throughout the country.
But despite this, and the ongoing debate about the importance of the royal family in the future, a million people gathered on The Mall, in front of Buckingham Palace, for an evening of celebrations to celebrate 50 years of the Queen’s reign. .
In April 2006, thousands of people thronged the streets of Windsor as the Queen made an unofficial tour as part of her 80th birthday celebrations.
And in November 2007, she and Prince Philip celebrated their 60th wedding anniversary in a service attended by about 2,000 people at Westminster Abbey.
There was another happy occasion in April 2011 when the Queen attended the wedding of her grandson, William, the reigning Prince of Cambridge, to Catherine Middleton.
great historical importance.
In a speech, which he began to deliver in Irish, he called for tolerance and reconciliation, referring to “things that we hope would have been done differently or not at all.”
A year later, in Northern Ireland, as part of the Diamond Jubilee celebrations, he shook hands with former IRA commander Martin McGuinness.
It was a historic moment for the Queen whose favorite cousin, Lord Louis Mountbatten, was killed by an IRA bomb in 1979.
The Diamond Jubilee celebrations brought together hundreds of thousands of people who took to the streets and culminating in celebrations over the weekend in London.
The referendum on Scottish independence held in September 2014 was a test for the Queen.
People had not forgotten his speech to Parliament in 1977 where he made clear his commitment to keep Britain united.
“I count the kings and queens of England and Scotland, and the reigning kings of Wales as among my ancestors and therefore I am aware of these aspirations. But I cannot forget that I was crowned Queen of the Kingdom of Great Britain (England, Wales and Scotland) and Northern Ireland .”
In his speech to those who came to Balmoral Castle to wish him well on the eve of the referendum on Scottish independence, which he no doubt intended to be heard, he said he hoped people would think very carefully about their future.
When the results of the vote became known, his public address emphasized his joy that the Union remained strong, even though he recognized that the political environment had changed.
“Now, as we move forward, we should remember that despite the different views that have been expressed, we have an incomparable common love for Scotland, which is one of the things that unites us all.”
In her later years, the Queen withdrew from much of public life although she did appear in a royal ceremony at Buckingham Palace for her Platinum Jubilee in 2022.
Image source, Getty Images
On 9 September 2015 she became the longest reigning monarch in British history, surpassing her grandmother Queen Victoria’s record.
As usual, he refused to brag about himself and said that these qualities were “something I never expected or desired.2
Less than a year later, in April 2016, he celebrated his 90th birthday.
She continued her public roles into her nineties, mostly alone after the Duke of Edinburgh’s retirement in 2017.
There were problems in the family – including her husband’s car accident, the Duke of York’s uneasy friendship with a convicted American businessman, and Prince Harry’s disillusionment with life in the royal family.
These were troubled times, overseen by a monarchy that showed it still had firm control. There was also the death of Prince Philip in April 2021, in the midst of the Covid pandemic.
Although the monarchy would not be as powerful at the end of the Queen’s reign as it was at the beginning, she was determined that it should continue to command a place of love and respect in the hearts of the British people.
On the occasion of the Silver Jubilee (25th anniversary), he remembered the promise he had made during the tour of South Africa 30 years before.
“When I was 21 years old, I dedicated my life to the service of our people and I asked for God’s help to fulfill that vow.
Although that promise was made in my youth, when I was not aware of my decisions, I do not regret; or remove one word from it.”