Morphology of the Flower

Introduction to Flowers

·         Flower is the plant organ for sexual reproduction

·         The flower produces gametes (sex cells)

·         Flowers are produced on the stem of the plant

·         Floral parts in monocotyledonous plants are divided into three or multiple of three

·         Floral parts in dicotyledonous plants occur in four or five

·         Flowers may be unisexual or bisexual

§  Dioecious plants

§  Are plants with unisexual flowers appearing on different plants

§  Monoecious plants

§  Unisexual male and female flowers appear on the same plant
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§  Polygamous plants

§  Plants that bear unisexual and hermaphrodite flowers on the same plant

·         Functions of the flower to the plant include;

§  Flowers help in pollination process by insects, wind, birds, mammals or by water

§  Flowers pollinated by insects have bright colours, sweet fragrance and produce nectar

§  Flowers pollinated by wind have large stigmas, no or little fragrance, and non- sticky pollens

§  Flowers pollinated by birds are log tube shaped, have bright red or yellow colours, and with no fragrance 
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§  Flowers pollinated by mammals have white flowers with strong fruity smell and open at night

Flowers pollinated by water may have pollens which floats on water

Close Photography of Red and Pink Rose


Trees and Evans (15th Edition) Pharmacognosy, W. B. Saunders

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