·         Early initiation of combination treatment (ART) is associated with health benefits in terms of reduced morbidity and mor­tality in all age groups. ·         In addition, ART is effective for pre­venting HIV transmission. ·         It also helps to drastically reduce ...

·        The common tests for diagnosing HIV/AIDs include: ELISA Test — ELISA, which stands for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, is used to detect HIV infection (detects antibodies against HIV-1)and is both highly sensitive and specific §  If an ELISA test is ...

·         In the absence of ART, disease progression goes through the following clinical stages o   Primary Infection or becoming HIV Infected §  Most primary infection, i.e. new infection with HIV, usually is not immediately noticed. §  It presents with short ...

·         The virus through its envelope proteins attaches to the CD4 receptor and co-receptors found on the surface of T lymphocytes and macrophage to gain entry to the host cells. ·         Following entry of the HIV into a susceptible host ...

·         AIDs is a set of symptoms (or syndrome) caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The clinical features may be due to HIV per se or as a result of immune system destruction. ·         It has the following features: o   ...

·         It is important to monitor Malaria therapy in order to evaluate if it is effective ·         Patients can be monitored clinically and/or by using laboratory test to confirm for absence/presence of malaria parasite in their blood ·         A follow-up ...

Management of uncomplicated Malaria: Drug of choice for treatment of uncomplicated malaria is Artemether-Lumefantrine (AL), which is a fixed formulation of artemether 20mg and lumefantrine 120mg or dispersible tablets for paediatric use Use of Artemether-lumefantrine (ALu) in Pregnancy ·         Presently, ...

·         Parasite-based diagnosis is recommended for all patients presenting with signs and symptoms of malaria. ·         The recommended investigations are: malaria microscopy and malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) ·        In severe malaria, blood slide (BS) is a recommended malaria test ...

·         Extreme weakness ·         Impaired consciousness ·         Change of behaviour ( hallucinations, delusions, agitation, and acute state of confusion) ·         Respiratory distress ·         Bleeding tendency ·         Jaundice ·         Circulatory collapse/ shock ·         Vomiting everything ·         Inability to drink or breastfeed ...

·         Fever ·         Headache ·         Malaise  ·         Joint pains ·         Vomiting /diarrhoea ·         Body ache ·         Poor appetite ·         Body weakness ·         Pallor  ·         Enlarged spleen References Wells BG, DiPiro J, Schwinghammer T (2013), Pharmacotherapy Handbook (6th Ed). New York, ...

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